Foreign Trade Export Import Business

Foreign Trade Export – Import Business


A country which is willing to transfer his status in  to a developed country is  on his power to raise his Feign Exchange reserves  From the starting of this century our Indian sub continent  is glittering and spearhead  it’s status to wards developing nation .It is not exaggerate that this strive is on the hands of our people and entrepreneurs. Our strengths are fortified when we get the intuition to amend our weakness to strengthen our portfolios,  Of course such intuition conceived in our mind our land’s strength is fortified.

ஆக்கம் அதிர்வினாய்ச் செல்லும் அசைவிலா ஊக்கம் உடையான் உழை

It is truthfully achieved as reveled by Thiruvalluvar

When our whole speed saleable resources cross our border to overseas, our strive to Export – Import ventures starts to shine and yield a gear to our external trade activities

When we start to realize this fact we step in to initiate a online Magazine as Foreign Trade – to deal with Export – Import business related activities .we feel complacency to present this online Magazine. Though it may be initiated to day this journey will present Export Import information, news, procedures, and its management performances etc, this will entails all the relevant matters pertaining to Export – Import business

  • When commodities are marketed beyond it’s national boundary is called Export
  • When other nation’s commodities ,technology and capital goods enter in to our land is called Import

Export and Import are inter related .Export growth will not be possible with out Import ,like wise Import will not be encouraged with out Export  as it is a open fact.

Please feel free to forward your expectations, inferences; questions to our constant strive to present this successful online Magazine   Foreign Trade

Yours ever faithful

RAMANATHAN NAGASAY – Master in Foreign Trade – MFT

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Though our ancient literature reveals the prosperity of ways to garner forex through External Trade , we step in to present the current Export – Import details through this online magazine Foreign Trade

First we will interpret about Export

Understanding Export:

The term export is derived from the conceptual meaning as to ship the goods and services out of the port (Visible exports) of a country When Services .technology are exported this may be called non visible exports The seller of such goods and services is referred to as an “exporter” who is based in the country of export whereas the overseas based buyer is referred to as an “importer”. In International Trade, “exports” refers to selling goods and services produced in home country to other markets

International Marketing is complex and challenging activity in today’s dynamic world environment. International marketing involves the performance of operations that determine existing and potential demand in a market. In order to determine the market opportunity it is necessary to study the customers market needs and characteristics through the performance of activities like Market Research, Demand Analysis, and Forecasting. In order to be successful in exporting one must fully research its markets. Many enthusiastic persons bitten by the export bug, fail because they bite off more than they can chew. No one should ever try to tackle every market at once. The fewer intermediaries one has the better,. All goods for export must be efficiently produced..

Advantages of Exporting:

Ø   Opportunity to expand Market Share

Ø    Increase production if capacity is underutilized in the Domestic Market

Ø    Decrease dependence on domestic sales or compensate foreign market

Ø    Diffuse domestic competition by expanding in to less competitive foreign market

What to Export

It is necessary to select very carefully the products to be sold in any particular market. The selected products must be in demand in the country where the product is to be sold. Exporter should select the product that can be manufactured and sourced with consistent standard quality at least equal to that of competitors.
The products selected should be possible to be manufactured at most economic cost so that it can be competitively priced and it is possible to sell. The product should be available in sufficient quantity and it should be possible to supply timely and regularly.

Points to be considered in   choosing the commodity   he wants to export:

Ø     Government of India policy and regulations in respect of the commodities.

Ø       Matching of product features with market including technical specification if possible as per ISO standard should be accepted.

Ø      Import regulations in respect of such commodities by the importing countries.

Ø      Availability and profitability of such commodities.

Ø      Rates of Duty Drawback and import replenishment in respect of such commodities.

Ø      Demand in the foreign market and desirable variations in quality and design that the market demands.

Ø     Quota fixation in respect of such commodities in both countries.

Ø      Knowledge about competitive position , market penetration level and experience in respect of such commodities of other exporters of        different countries.

Ø      Whether such commodities enjoy tariff preferences or not, in the importing country

Ø     Suitable Packaging and Labeling.

Ø     Mode of transport and suitability of Logistics.

Where to Export

The exporter should collect adequate market information before selecting one or more target markets. The target market should be selected after consideration of various factors like past performance, Market size political embargo, scope of export of selected product , demand stability , preferential treatment to products from developing countries, market penetration of competitive countries and products, distance of potential market , transport problems, language problems, tariff and non- tariff barriers applicable , distribution infrastructure , size of demand in market , expected life span of market and product requirements , sales and distribution channel.

Factors for Assessing Market

Ø     Demographic and Physical Environment

  • Total population and growth density trends.
  • Distribution of the population by targeted age groups.
  • Distribution of population by urban , suburban and rural areas
  • Climate and Weather variations . How will these effect the product offered?
  • Shipping distances from the point of export.
  • Age and Quality of the transportation and telecommunication infrastructure.
  • Adequacy of shipping, packaging unloading and other local distribution networks.

Ø     Political Environment

  • Whether the system of Government is conducive to conducting business?
  • To what extent the government is involved in private business transactions.
  • Government’s attitude to importing.
  • Whether the political system is stable.
  • Government’s attitude towards the dismantling of quotas , tariffs and other trade barriers.

Ø     Economic Environment

  • Whether the country is committed to fostering higher levels of imports and exports?
  • Predicted economic growth levels.
  • Gross National Product and balance of payments situation.
  • Percentage share of imports and exports in the overall economy.
  • The country import to export ratio.
  • Rate of inflation and foreign currency or exchange regulations.
  • Per capita income of the target country

Ø     Technological Environment

  • High Expectation of consumers.
  • System Complexity.
  • Increased productivity
  • Need to spend on R & D.
  • Demand for Capital.

Ø     Social and Cultural Environment

  • Percentage of discretionary income spent on consumer goods.
  • Percentage of people who are literate. What is the average educational level achieved.
  • Percentage of the population identified as a middle class

Ø     Market Access

  • To what extent the target market similar to home market.
  • Whether the product need translation or adaptation.
  • Summarize the legal aspects of distributorships for each country.
  • Documentary requirements and the technical or environmental import regulations covering the product.
  • What intellectual property protections Laws would effect the product.
  • Where a commercial dispute arises, does the judicial system offer a fair and unbiased review?
  • Are tax Laws to foreign investors. What is the rate of tax on repatriated profits?

Ø     How to Assess a Country

Any exporter venturing into an overseas market is exposed to a number of risks which may or may not be prevalent in the domestic trade. Amongst the various risks which an exporter is exposed to, two major risks viz. Buyer risks and Country risks stand out. Buyer or commercial risks in their genesis, relate to those risks which emanate from leading to a business entity. Commercial risks reflects the profitability or otherwise of a firm or individual to repay its obligations and is the result of mismanagement of the firm or individual. Country risks encompasses both sovereign risks which is the risk of lending to the government of a sovereign nation as well as political risk involving primarily the likelihood of political instability as well as economic disruption , both leading to non – payment. Thus country risks refers to a spectrum of risks arising from the economic , social, political environment of a given foreign country, which endangers the payment to be made to overseas suppliers , commercial banks or multilateral financial institutions.

There are variety of factors that can be examined to determine whether a country is fairly good risk to deal with. They are described as below:   1 – Political stability / Instability: The political situation in a particular country does directly impact on the payment ability of the country and also indirectly through their impact on country’s economic health. It is imperative to examine –

  • Country’s political, economic and social structure.
  • The legislative, institutional and regulatory framework.
  • The individual and collective character of those who govern.
  • Fact and figures about past and current political current political trends.

Ø     Gross Domestic Product :

  • The GDP which indicates the size of the economy does help us to gauge the degree of wealth of a country and the per capita GDP figure further supplements this assessment. The GDP growth is also reliable measure of the economic health of the economy.

Ø     Inflation :

Past data has indicated that countries with high debt servicing problems had experienced rates of inflation substantially higher than that experience by countries without debt servicing problems. For developing countries inflation rates less than 10 % may be considered good.

Ø     Exchange Rates :

They are the key to maintaining the balance of payment position of a country as well as bringing about domestic and external adjustments. The willingness of a country to make needed changes in the exchange rate is a positive indicator of the country’s resolve to maintaining a viable balance of payment position; and by maintaining the parity of its currency with the other currencies a country will be in a position to improve its current account as well as growth rates.

Ø     Import Cover :

The import coverage ratio measures a country ability to pay for its import with current liquid assets. It shows the extent to which a country can keep financing its import if exports suddenly fall.

Ø     Balance of Payment ( BOP):

The BOP reveal a lot about the health of foreign trade sector. Large current account deficits can jeopardize a country’s ability to honor its commitment and hence its credit worthiness.

Ø     International Reserves:

Large declines in International resources indicate economic deterioration on account of falling exports, falling domestic production /or increasing imports.

IMF Credit/ Quota :

The use of IMF credit trenches indicate the degree to which the country’s financial situation has forced it to use credit/quota. The higher rate of IMF credit by accounting as a percentage of its quota is an indication that the country is experiencing difficulties in its BOP situation and will be forced to follow austere economic policies to adhere to the funds conditionally , which in turn may have some adverse effects on the medium / long term growth prospects of the economy.

Ø     ECGC Ratings:

ECGC has graded various countries in a 7 fold classification (A1,A2,B1,B2,C1,C2, D) and these grades reflect its overall assessment of the political risks prevailing in a particular country. It has been observed that the economic fundamentals play a very important role along with political factors in determining the ability of countries to honour its external obligations. An exporter must assess these country risks also while finalizing his choice of country to do business. ECGC provides cover for these risks and help exporter to shield themselves from loses due to number of political risks.

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